taboo: something that is avoided, banned, or not allowed because of a cultural belief.
tabula rasa: (translation: ‘blank slate’), refers to the behaviourist belief that all human behaviour is infinitely plastic and malleable, and therefore can be explained in terms of learnt
experiences, rather than genetic predispositions.
tardive dyskinesia: a condition that is occasionally experienced as a side-effect of
antipsychotic drugs, typified by involuntary movements of the tongue, lips, jaw and other
taste aversion: refers to a type of learning formed after one trial, whereby an association is formed between feelings of sickness and (usually) a particular food, resulting in an avoidance of the food.
telegraphic speech: refers to the reduced sentences (resembling telegrams) that distinguish children’s speech patterns from around 18 months to two years, demonstrating the basics of early grammar by containing crucial nouns and verbs.
telic state: a motivational state in which arousal is avoided.
personality that exist at birth and are believed
to be as a result of
pattern recognition; the proposal that we match
incoming information with templates (miniature
representations) of patterns stored in
the region of the
cortex below the lateral fissure; contains
the tendency of animals to defend (e.g. through scent
markings) a particular geographical area from other members
of their own species, in order to gain access to and
increase control over a resource.
a male sex
hormone produced by the testes, that is responsible
for production of sperm and the development of the
secondary sexual characteristics. It has also
been associated with
of measurements consistency, by
correlating (the same) test
performance on two different occasions.
part of the
forebrain, transmits nerve impulses, up sensory
pathways to the
cerebral cortex. Damage to the thalamus can
Freudian term which represents the death instinct,
aggressive behaviour and a
rejection of pleasurable
a projective test, whereby individuals are presented with
ambiguous pictures and asked to generate a story from them,
power, achievement and
affiliation, and in a clinical
setting, any underlying
structured set of concepts to explain a
phenomena or group
theory of mind:
child’s understanding of the
motives of other
having a beneficial effect on
that aids understanding and recovery from
difficulties. A wide variety of therapies can be divided
psychotherapies (involving discussion or action)
somatic therapies (medical or biological
comments made when by experimental
participants of the
mental processes and approaches used whilst working on a
used to describe the development of the
perspective as an alternative to the
laboratory apparatus used by
Skinner, to demonstrate
an idea; an instance of
thinking; the state or condition of thinking.
abnormal psychology, distortions of thought processes
such as incoherent speech.
thought disorder: in
a general term to describe disturbance of thought or speech
that might be symptomatic of a
mental disorder, for
instance incoherent thought and speech patterns.
renowned for his animal research, exploring trial and
error learning (known as instrumental learning) in animals
through the development of the Thorndike ‘puzzle-box’
three mountains test:
Piagetian task to demonstrate
whereby children are shown a model of three mountains, and
watches as a doll is positioned at a different point
around the mountains. Pre-operational
children are unable to see from the dolls perspective of
tip of the tongue
a term used to refer to the experience when we feel that we know a
particular word, yet are unable to retrieve it.
the principles of
operant conditioning, a
behaviour modification technique used to encourage
particular behaviour, through the employment of
secondary reinforcers (tokens) after desirable behaviour, which can
be collected and exchanged for
primary reinforcers (a
meaningful object or privilege).
for greater dosages of a drug in order to achieve the same
Tolman (1886 ?1959):
psychologist who concentrated on learning (escape,
latent, avoidance, approach and choice-point learning) in
rats, most commonly in mazes.
the context of
offender profiling, an approach that examines
evidence from the crime scene in light of existing
theories of serious crimes (the ‘top’)
and appraises which category a particular crime fits into.
Commonly used by American criminal profilers.
perceptual processing in which previous experiences,
existing knowledge, expectations,
motivations or the
context in which
perception takes place, affect how a
perceived object is interpreted and classified.
neurological disorder characterised by facial grimaces
and tics and movements of the upper body and grunts and
forgetting: the information no longer stored in
personal characteristic or attribute which occurs
consistently and influences behaviour across a range of
a process during
psychoanalysis, whereby a client attaches
feelings towards the
therapist that were previously
unconsciously directed towards a significant person in their
life, who may have been involved in some form of
transfer of training:
refers to the way in which skills learnt in one
situation may to be transferred to a second, related
term used either for a physical injury (as a result of an
external force), or a
psychological injury (caused by an
Treisman (1935-): A British
psychologist specialising in visual attention and object
perception, renowned for proposing the feature integration
a single unit of experimentation where a
presented, an organism responds and a consequence follows.
originally proposed by Thorndike, a view of learning that
proposes responses that do not achieve the desired effect
are gradually reduced, and those that do are gradually
a test to
determine how closely computers mimic human
two factor theory of
emotion: is a
theory that views
emotion as having two components (factors):
cognition. According to the
are used to interpret the meaning of
physiological reactions to outside events.”
twins are studied to assess the relative contributions
genetic and environmental influences on a particular
type 1 error:
null hypothesis when it should be accepted.
Also called a
type 2 error:
null hypothesis when it should be rejected.
Also called a
type A personality: a set of personality characteristics, including a sense of
competitiveness, hostility, a constant sense of time pressure and impatience, which result in an increased risk of coronary heart disease.
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