R

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random allocation:

refers to the how
experimenters divide

participants
into each experimental condition, to reduce any

bias
in the distribution of

participant
characteristics.


random sample:

a technique for obtaining

participants
, whereby every member of the population has an equal
chance of being selected 


range:
a

descriptive statistic
that shows the
difference between the
highest and the lowest scores in a data set.

rapid eye movement
(REM) sleep:

refers to the phase of sleep, characterised by eye movements and

dreaming
. In adults, REM sleep alternates with
other periods of sleep (non-REM sleep) over a
9O-minute cycle. REM sleep is also accompanied by an
increase in heart rate and blood pressure, and
faster and more irregular breathing patterns.



rating scale:

refers to the

appraisal
of a person or behaviour along a
specific scale.



ratio data/scale:
an interval
scale that has a true zero point (eg. temperature).



rational:

consistent with or
based on or using reason; “rational behavior”.



rational-emotive
therapy:

a
form of

therapy
developed by
Ellis
which focuses changing irrational beliefs and faulty
interpretations, which result in negative

emotions
and severe

anxiety
.



rationalisation:

a


defence mechanism
whereby behaviour is
explained and justified by offering a reason
acceptable to the

ego
in place of the true reason.


reaction formation:

a


defence mechanism
whereby a person a
behaviour is displayed that is the opposite of a
forbidden impulse. An example would be a man who
deals with his

homosexual
feelings by displaying external
resentment towards

homosexuals
.



reaction time:

time taken to respond to a

stimulus
, measured by the interval between the

stimulus
and the response.



realistic
conflict theory:

an
account of

prejudice
and

discrimination
that proposes intergroup conflict
and antagonism occurs when groups are competing for
scarce resources.



reality principle:

in
Freud’s theory, the
constraints and set of rules that govern the

ego
, delaying the

ids


gratification
, by recognition of the demands of
the real world.



reasoning:
is the

mental (cognitive) process
of looking for
reasons for beliefs, conclusions, actions or
feelings.



rebound:

the

symptoms
that the medicine was going to cure
returns when one stops taking the medicine and
sometimes extra much so during the time just after
one has gone off the medicine.



recall:

in

memory
, the active retrieval of information.

recency effect:


improved

memory
for list of words at the end of a list
than those in the middle of the list.



recentring:

in
Gestalt

theory
, developing an alternative ?a target=”_blank” href=”http://www.psychology.net.in/dictionary/m#mental_set”>mental
set?for a situation, such as when trying to
solve a problem.



recidivism:

reverting back to crime, for instance after being
released from prison.



reciprocal altruism:

in

evolutionary psychology
, the concept that
individuals performance

altruistic
behaviour if the expected benefit of
future help from the strangers surpasses the
short-term cost of helping.

recognition:
in

memory
, the process of identifying presented
information as familiar and having been experienced
before.

reconstructive
memory:


an account of piecing together and reassembling
stored information during

recall
, and stored knowledge, expectations and
beliefs are used to fill gaps and produce a coherent
memory representation.



recovered memories:

adults recover early

repressed


memories
(often sexual abuse), which are often
cited as the cause of a problem (e.g. eating
disorder)



reflex:

an
unlearned response that is triggered by specific
environmental

stimuli
, e.g. as a baby’s sucking on an object
placed in the mouth.

refractory period:

refers to the period following an

action potential
when a particular section of a
nerve cell cannot be stimulated.



regression:

in
Freudian
theory, a

defence mechanism
whereby a individual
reverts to a behaviour of an earlier developmental
period to prevent

anxiety
and satisfy current needs.


rehearsal:

refers to the

cognitive process
involving the repetition of an
item in order to maintain it in

short-term memory
.

reinforcer:

in

conditioning
, any

stimulus
, that after following a response,
increases the

probability
of that response occurring.


relapse:

return to drug use by a user who has previously recovered. Alternative
definition:
The

symptoms
that the medicine was going to cure
returns when one stops taking the medicine and
sometimes extra much so during the time just after
one has gone off the medicine.


related t-test:

a parametric

inferential statistical
test. Used with

interval
or

ratio data
, a repeated measures design (or

matched pairs
), to investigate any difference in
the effect each level of the

independent variable
has on the

dependent variable
.



relaxation training:

procedures that target to reduce and relax muscle
tension, heart rate and

cortical activity
. This is evident in

systematic desensitisation
.



reliability:

a measure of consistency, to represent the degree to
which replications of a test or method produces
similar data scores.



repeated measures
design:

(
within-subjects
or
related design) experimental design in which
each individual participates in every level of the

independent variable
.



repression:



defence mechanism
 whereby

memories
, feelings or ideas associated with pain
or

guilt
are blocked from

conscious
awareness.


research:

the process of gaining

knowledge
, either by an examination of
appropriate

theories
or through

empirical data
.  In

p
sychology,
the term is used to refer to an investigative
process such as the

experiment
or the

case study
.


resistance:

in

psychoanalysis
, inability or unwillingness of a
patient to accept the analysts interpretations of
their behaviour and to discuss certain ideas or
experiences.



responder bias
(participant
reactivity):

Arial”> tendency of a
participant
to produce

biased
responses as a result of wanting to
appear socially desirable or to be in line with what
the experimenter wants.


restoration
accounts of sleep:

the


hypothesis
that the purpose of sleep is to
restore and repair the body.


reticular formation:

a
diffuse network of nerve fibres which runs through
the

brain stem
and

limbic system
, with connections both up to the

cortex
and down to the spinal cord; that alerts
the

cerebral cortex
to incoming sensory signals and
serves to regulate

arousal
levels, maintain

consciousness
and awakening from sleep.


retina:

the light sensitive part of the eye, that is comprised of
three layers of neural tissue, including
photoreceptors that convert light into neural
responses to be passed to the

brain
via the

optic nerve
.



retrieval
:

the process and recovery of a stored item from

memory
.


retrieval cues
:internal or external

stimuli
that aid

memory

retrieval.


retrograde amnesia:

the
inability to

recall
events before the cause of the

amnesia
, e.g.

brain
injury.


retrospective study:

a
study which assesses the impact of early experience
on later development looking back from the time of
the specified effect to the early experience.



reward:

any
event which is pleasurable or satisfying to the
organism (for example, food to a hungry animal)



rewards-cost model:

theory by
Piliavin that
proposes that

altruistic behaviour
is determined by
weighing up the

rewards
and costs of helping and not helping.



risky shift:

refers to the fact that people tend to make riskier
decisions when they are members of a group than they
would if they made the same decision independently.


ritalin:

a drug whose action resembles that of the amphetamines. It
has been controversially used in the treatment of
children suffering from

attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder
.


Rogers

(1902-1987): was one of the original founders
of the

humanistic perspective
. His

theories
encompassed the importance of
unconditional and conditional positive regard in
development of the ‘self
concept
‘ and ‘conditions of worth’ set by
others. His work has been applied to a range of
domains, particularly in

therapy
through his development of ‘client-centred
(now named ‘person-centred

therapy
.



rods (and cones):

a
type of receptor cell found in the

retina

of the eye. Rods are critical for sight during
dim illumination, whereas cones are more active in
good light conditions. Individuals who lack rods (or
have rods that don’t function) suffer from night
blindness, and cannot see properly in dim light.



role conflict:

a
situation where an individual occupies two roles
at the same time, where each role is
incompatible to the expectations of the other.



role model:

a
person whose behaviour is observed and

imitated
.



Rorschach test:

a
type of

projective

test
that consists of ten bilaterally
symmetrical inkblots.

Participants
responses and interpretations are
assumed to reveal of various characteristics such as

emotional
responsiveness and

personality
.

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