measuring instrument used by
Adorno to measure the
personality, by exploring the extent to which people agree with statements such
respect for authority are the most important virtues children should
involves the comparison of a
stimulus pattern with stored representations of familiar faces.
the extent to which
the measure appears
(at face value) to test
what it claims to.
false memory debate:
false memory syndrome:
false negative (also called a
Type II error):
inferential statistics, concluding that the observed
results are due only to chance when in fact a significant
false positive (also called a
Type 1 error):
inferential statistics, concluding that an observed
outcome is significant when in fact it reflects only chance.
criterion to evaluate a
theory against, whereby the
should state circumstances where it can be proven wrong.
family systems theory:
the view of the family as a set of interacting and
participants become tired or bored if a demanding or
repetitive task is repeated, resulting in deteriorating
explain pattern recognition, proposes that images are
processed in terms of their component parts, which then
match the features of a pattern stored in
perception, the ability to detect contours,
crucial for object recognition.
the expression and sensation of
emotion; created, expressed and stored in the
Festinger (1919-1989): a renowned social
psychologist who developed the
cognitive dissonance (whereby incongruity between
beliefs or behaviours cause
psychological discomfort) and
experiment in a natural setting, rather than the
comparatively artificial setting of the laboratory.
extraneous variables are difficult to control.
of internal activities that are set off when an organism is
faced with a threat, in preparation of defending or
attacking (fight) or fleeing to safety (flight).
the best known form of
a young animal learns the characteristics of its parent. It
is most obvious in
imprint on their parents and then follow them
filognosy: love for the knowledge of self-realisation as inspired by as well the western as
eastern concepts of emancipation that together make for the integrity of the different views,
forms of logic and intelligence one finds in modern society on a global scale.
fixation: in psychoanalytic theory, a preference for the mode of gratification associated with a particular stage of psychosexual development as a result of too much or too little gratification at that stage.
fixed interval schedule: a reinforcement applied on a systematic time basis, for instance, every four minutes.
fixed ratio schedule: a reinforcement applied according to a number of predetermined responses, for instance one reinforcement for every three responses.
flashbulb memory: memory related to an emotionally arousing event.
flooding: a behavioural therapy to treat phobias, through exposure to the feared object for an
extended period of time, with no opportunity for escape.
fluid intelligence: an abstract form of intelligence that includes the ability to analyse complex relationships, reason and find solutions to problems.
participants after a study, in order to
examine any long-term effects that may have arisen as a
result of their participation.
a method of
compliance method, whereby people are more
likely to comply if they initially agree to a small request,
followed by a larger request later on. (see also
test where respondents select one of a number of differing
responses, in order to reduce likelihood of socially
the inability to recall or recognise what has previously
been remembered. Forgetting has been explained by a number
of accounts ?
trace-dependent forgetting (the
memory trace is lost),
cue-dependent forgetting (the lack of necessary cues to
area on the
retina, that contains closely packed
onto which light from an object is focused upon.
of mind (state of mind):
psychological state i.e.
emotional attitude or
psychodynamic technique, whereby a patient is
encouraged to freely talk about their thoughts, wishes,
mental images as they arise, in the hope of
preconscious content to surface in the
free will vs determinism:
refers to the debate between those who believe that external
or internal factors acting upon the individual determine
and those that believe individuals respond actively to the
outside world (free will).
statistical analysis of a set of data reflecting how often
each score occur. Frequency distributions can be represented
in a number of graphical ways, including
(1856-1939): the founder of the
psychoanalytic school of
psychology, emphasised the importance of the
unconscious mind, childhood experiences and repressed
urges. His theory of
psychosexual development outlines five stages; oral,
anal, phallic, latent and genital, according to the
different objects fixated upon at each specific stage. Freud
also focused on the structure and development of
personality; comprised of three parts – the
superego. Conflicts between the id and
superego are dealt with by the ego that utilizes defence mechanisms for instance, denial. Furthermore, he applied a range of his ideas to dreams to understand unconscious desires, for instance, repressed urges often manifest in dreams through symbolic images. Freuds work, albeit controversial, has had a huge impact on psychology, in particular through psychoanalysis and his therapeutic techniques (e.g. free association).
slip-up, either in speech, writing or in
memory lapses that
reflects the hidden worries or focus of the
the area of the
cortex in front of the central fissure, and above
the lateral fissure; involved in motor control and
an operation, popular in the 1940s and 1950s, which involved sectioning
or removing sections of the frontal lobes, often to treat
bipolar mood disorder or chronic pain.
developed by Dollard and Miller which proposes that
frustration ?whereby people are blocked or prevented from
reaching their goals ?results in a great chance of
fully functioning person: portrayed by
Rogers as the ideal of growth; healthy growth
is demonstrated by openness, a high level of spontaneity,
compassion and self-direction.
theory, perceiving an object as having only one
already established or associated use; an inability to
identify a new use.
functional MRI (fMRI):
brain imaging technique that scans by measuring magnetic
changes in the flow of blood to cells in the
fundamental attribution error: in attribution theory, the inclination to overemphasise the influence of dispositional factors (e.g. personality) and underestimating the role of situational factors (e.g. weather) on a persons behaviour.
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