the gradual process
through which the eyes adjust from a change in illumination from light
to low light intensity.
a hugely influential naturalist, who proposed that all species evolve
through natural selection so that traits that enhance survival are
visionary fantasy experienced while awake, especially one of happy,
pleasant thoughts, hopes, or ambitions.
ethical procedure that occurs at the end of a study, whereby
participants are given as much information as possible about the study,
are given the option to discuss their experience of the study, to
participants leave the
experiment in the same
state as they entered.
the loss of information in
memory over a long period of time.
in research, the
intentional misleading and misinforming of
participants with regard to
the aim of the study.
measure of volume (sound intensity) .decision-making:
reasoning that involves considering and choosing different
for facts (semantic
knowledge) and events (episodic
the logical process of drawing a particular conclusion from
a set of general principles.
psychological strategies as part of
theory, that are used to distort or deny
reality, in order to cope with
anxiety and/or a situation which an individual feels is
difficult to cope with.
through which group members cease to view themselves as
individuals. Individual identity is replaced with
identification with a group.
unfounded and irrational beliefs held despite contrary
evidence. Characteristic of
mental disorders such as
can be manifested in delusions of grandeur (believing that
one is famous or powerful) or delusions of persecution
(believing that one is being chased or followed).
cues in an
experiment that reveal information to
participants about the aim and expected outcome, thereby
influencing their behavior and subsequently confounding the
characterised by considerable deterioration in
function, for instance in loss of
memory. Different types of
corticial dementias (e.g.
Alzheimers disease) and sub-cortical dementias
socioeconomic or similar factor that defines a certain
group or area.
fibres at the end of the cell body of a
neuron that receive incoming impulses
an individual may denies or rejects some aspect of reality.
molecule which forms basis of heredity. DNA holds all
genetic information on the
a form of
personality disorder, whereby an individual is
heavily reliant upon others and demonstrates feelings of
inadequacy and helplessness when alone.
dependent variable (DV):
experiment, the values of the variable that
change as a result of manipulation of the
a type of
mood disorder, characterised by persistent feelings of great
sadness, hopelessness, worthlessness,
guilt and a loss of
interest in activities.
a condition of having too
little of something.
capability to view the world three-dimensionally, utilising
monocular and binocular cues to appraise depth and distance
the description and summation of sets of scores in statistics.
that all behaviour has specific causes.
also known as human development. It is
the scientific study of the processes which underlie and control growth
and change in behaviour over time.
deviant behavior: behavior that is a recognised
violation of social norms.?
identification and classification of a
Statistical Manual (DSM):
multi-axial manual used for the
classification, definition and description of
an explanation of
mental disorders based on a combination of
genetic vulnerability (diathesis) and environmental
utilised in attention research, whereby a different auditory
message is simultaneously presented to each ear.
Participants are required to repeat one of the messages
whilst ignoring the other.
a part of
forebrain, containing the
thalamus and the
in groups when an individual feels less responsibility
because accountability is diffused amongst the group.
Evident in emergency situations, whereby the larger the
number of bystanders, the less responsibility each bystander
a test of
short-term memory, whereby
presented with a series of digits and asked to repeat them.
Average digit span is 7 +/- 2.
states which of the two condition
means will be larger, most often used,
one tailed T-test.
Piagetian belief that children learn through
self-discovery, aided by a teacher providing suitable
materials, thereby stimulating
measurement using of a discrete category (eg. Gender) as
opposed to a continuous score (e.g height, weight,
unequal and unlawful
treatment based upon race, colour, creed, religion, sex,
national origin, age, disability, veteran status, or
mutual process of disengagement in activities expected by
the individual and by society.
one of the
positive symptoms of
schizophrenia, a disturbance whereby speech
is disjointed and incoherent.
short-term memory, as a result of to new incoming
information replacing the previous contents
behavior is attributed to internal factors that are directly
controllable by a person, e.g. an individuals effort or
ability, as opposed to external factors (situational
attributions), such as the weather or bad luck.
Is a condition, often caused by
trauma, in which a person disconnects from a full
awareness of self, time, or external circumstances as a
defence against unpleasant realities or
a factor which has an indirect effect on behaviour, such as
previous experiences in similar situations.
ability to divide our attentional processing between more
than one task.
dizygotic twins (non-identical
twins that develop from different
zygotes (eggs) and only share about fifty percent of
used to induce
compliance, whereby individuals are first
asked a large favour, followed by a smaller favour, which is
more likely to be followed.
neurotransmitter in the
brain, important for
learning and the experience of pleasure and reward.
is based on over-activity of
synapses that depend on
schizophrenia proposed by
Bateson, which argues that
faulty communication patterns within the family contribute
to the onset of
double-blind design: a form of experimental control, whereby both the subject and
experimenter are kept uninformed about the purpose of the
experiment, to reduce any forms of bias (in particular,
chromosomal disorder that is characterised by low
a stage of sleep typified by the experience of visual
rapid eye movements (REM).
drive reduction theory
Hull’s proposal that all behaviour is motivated and that
motivation stems from the satisfaction of
homeostatic drives (e.g. hunger and thirst).
Stimuli (e.g. food and water) that decreases the drives
subsequently reinforce the behaviour that led to them.
psychological disorders that are based on biological
abnormal behavior. Treatment includes
drugs and anti-bipolar drugs.
functioning incorrectly or
‘developmental dyslexia’ is used to explain difficulties
with written and spoken language (across differing levels of
intellect) that occurs as a result of development, whilst
acquired dyslexia?occurs as a result of a stroke or
similar injury, whereby language skills are impaired.
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